WHAT IS PHOTOBIOMODULATION?
Mitochondria are the energy factories that exits within almost every cell and they are the key to Photobiomodulation. Mitochondria have a substance called cytochrome oxidase that can absorb red and near-infrared light and convert the energy into a form of biological energy called adenosine triphosphate (or "ATP").
WHAT IS BRAIN PHOTOBIOMODULATION?
Mechanisms of Brain Photobiomodulation
There are several mechanisms associated with promoting physiological change through photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). The wavelengths primarily used with PBM is within the near-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum with a sufficient power density. When hypoxic/impaired cells are irradiated with low-level NIR photons, there is increased mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production within their mitochondria.1, 2 Another change is the release of nitric oxide from the hypoxic/impaired cells. Neurons are cells that contain mitochondria and nitric oxide.
In hypoxic neuronal cells, cytochrome-C oxidase (CCO), a membrane-bound protein that serves as the end-point electron acceptor in the cell respiration electron transport chain, becomes inhibited by non-covalent binding of nitric oxide. When exposed to NIR photons, the CCO releases nitric oxide, which then diffuses outs of the cell – increasing local blood flow and vasodilation.3, 4
Following initial exposure to the NIR photons, there is a brief burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the neuron cell, and this activates a number of signaling pathways. The ROS leads to activation of redox-sensitive genes, and related transcription factors including NF-κβ.5, 6 The PBMT stimulates gene expression for cellular proliferation, migration, and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors.7